Rare earth application

Most people are familiar with rechargeable batteries, hybrid vehicles, renewable energy (such as wind turbines), mobile phones, flat screen display panels, laptop computers, compact fluorescent light bulbs, disk drives & catalytic converters, but it is not widely known that these products, amongst many others, are dependent on the unique properties of Rare Earth Elements.

The use of rare earth in magnets, rechargeable batteries and catalysts accounts for more than 60% of REE consumption with demand expected to increase significantly in all these areas.

Rare earth applications

Atomic Number REE Element Symbol                       Application
21 Scandium Sc Aerospace framework, high-intensity street lamps, high performance equipment
39 Yttrium Y TV sets, cancer treatment drugs, enhances strength of alloys
57 Lanthanum La Camera lenses, battery-electrodes, hydrogen storage
58 Cerium Ce Catalytic converters, colored glass, steel production
59 Praseodymium Pr Super-strong magnets, welding goggles, lasers
60 Neodymium Nd Extremely strong permanent magnets, microphones, electric motors of hybrid automobiles, laser
61 Promethium Pm Not usually found in Nature
62 Samarium Sm Cancer treatment, nuclear reactor control rods, X-ray lasers
63 Europium Eu Color TV screens, fluorescent glass, genetic screening tests
64 Gadolinium Gd Shielding in nuclear reactors, nuclear marine propulsion, increases durability of alloys
65 Terbium Tb TV sets, fuel cells, sonar systems
66 Dysprosium Dy Commercial lighting, hard disk devices, transducers
67 Holmium Ho Lasers, glass coloring, High-strength magnets
68 Erbium Er Glass colorant, signal amplification for fiber optic cables, metallurgical uses
69 Thulium Tm High efficiency lasers, portable x-ray machines, high temperature superconductor
70 Ytterbium Yb Improves stainless steel, lasers, ground monitoring devices
71 Lutetium Lu Refining petroleum, LED light bulbs, integrated circuit manufacturing